Tips & Tricks to solve ParaJumble Questions in CAT
In the CAT Exam, one of the most common Verbal Ability questions is of Para Jumbles. Scoring is very easy in these questions despite being very tricky as it is the type of these questions. This topic is also known as Sentence Rearrangement. Para Jumble simply means a Paragraph that is jumbled. It is not in order. So we have to rearrange the sentences given in the paragraph in a proper sequence so that the paragraph makes sense and is not absurd. In this article, we will be discussing the Tips & Tricks to solve ParaJumble Questions in CAT exam along with some examples.
3 to 4 questions are asked in the CAT Exam from Para Jumbles which are ‘Type in the Answer’ or ‘TITA’ questions. In this format, the candidates have to type in the correct answer and no options are given to them to choose from. This makes these questions little tougher and more challenging. Still, this is one area where even the amateurs can score high with just simple tips and tricks up their sleeve.
Tips & Tricks to solve ParaJumble Questions in CAT
Following are some simple tricks and tips to solve Para – Jumbles in the Verbal Ability section of the CAT Exam:
1. Identify the purpose of the passage-
The first step in solving the para jumbles is to comprehend the purpose of the extract or the paragraph. The purpose of the paragraph could be interpreted so as to:
- Explain – The purpose of the passage would be interpreted as to explain some concept. In such situations, the author would first present the main idea and then move on to specific sub- ideas expanding upon the main idea in the following sentences.
- Aware – In some passages, the author would first make you aware of certain facts and background information. This would throw light upon the context of the passage preceding the main or key issue discussed in the passage.
- Anxiety/ Concern – In such passages, the author plays the ‘sentiment card’ and tries to influence the reader sentimentally by introducing a specific concern in the first line itself. The succeeding sentences consist of the factors related to the main issue or concern and their reasons.
- Solution Oriented – The first line of the passage tells about the issues or concerns related to anything. In the following sentences, the potential solutions to those issues are discussed.
- Surprise/ Amaze – The passages pertaining to this element tend to cause wonder or amazement in the readers. The opening sentence of the passage would have such ideas or facts as to pique the interest and get attention of the readers. The following sentences consist of the factors related to that main idea.
2. Look for the Keywords/ Indicators –
There are certain keywords that are used in any part of the passage that can indicate or hint the sequence of the passage. Some of its types are:
- Introductory Keywords: Such keywords are used to define the beginning of the discussion or describe the central idea of the passage.
Example – A, An, Nowadays, Beginning
- Concluding Keywords: These keywords indicate the conclusion or the summation of the entire idea of the passage and so are seen in the concluding statements.
Example – Thus, Therefore, Finally, Eventually, Clearly
- Comparative Keywords: Words that indicate a comparison between different factors are placed in the central part of the passage.
Example – Likewise, Similarly
- Contrast Keywords: These keywords are used to contradict any given facts in the passage. They are used in the central part of the passage.
Example – But, Yet, Although, On the one hand, Nevertheless
- Connector Keywords: These keywords provide support or assistance to the concept being discussed by giving additional information. They are also used in the central part of the passage.
Example – Additionally, In Addition to this, Apart from this
- Sequence Keywords: These words indicate factors that tell the sequence or order of events in a particular order.
Example – Firstly, Event Time, Dates, Days, etc.
- Cause and Effect Keywords: These words help to recognize the middle sentence where the preceding sentence is the cause and the following sentence tells the effect due to it.
Example – As, Since, Due to
3. Form Mandatory Pairs –
It refers to a set or pair of sentences that evidently come after another in order. These type of pairs help us to eliminate other probable combinations of sentences. If choices are given, look for these pairs.
4. Use Time Sequencing –
These types of indicators suggest a timeline or a sequence of events occurring in the passage. This way they can help to solve the para jumble by connecting the sentences in sequence one after another.
5. Take help of Nouns, Pronouns and Antecedents –
Similar to the previous technique, another way to solve para jumbles is through identifying nouns and pronouns. Nouns are used to introduce some characters for the first time. The pronouns are used afterwards to mention the characters again generally. This can help in identifying the order of the sentences. This is however not always true. For example-
Sentence A: It began in 1939 and ended in 1945.
Sentence B: WWII, however, led to worldwide catastrophic consequences – social, political, and economic – that were felt for several decades after.
In these sentences, the Noun WWII in sentence B should follow the pronoun ‘It’ in sentence A.
Let’s apply the Tips & Tricks to solve ParaJumble Questions in the CAT exam, discussed above in some questions:
EXAMPLE- 1 (TITA)
1- It always seems like there’s a mountain between us and our dreams.
2- People who want to achieve something great, reach a lofty goal, or start something new will often hesitate before taking the leap.
3- That little bit of hesitation is fine – it’s not wise to do anything monumental without pausing to make important considerations.
4- The hesitation becomes a problem when it transmutes into fear or anxiety that holds you back from doing something you’re perfectly capable of doing.
5- If fear is standing in the way of your success, it’s time to evaluate the situation, work towards resolving that fear, and do the thing you’ve always dreamed of doing.
Correct answer: 12345
After reading all the statements carefully we can say that the context of this paragraph is out of fear/hesitation that we face in our daily lives and how it stands between you and your success.
We can start the re-arrangement with statement 1 which gives a direction towards the context of the paragraph we can build upon. Statement 2 should follow next as it further explains the metaphoric Mountain mentioned in statement 1 and says that people often hesitate before taking a leap. Now Statement 3 should follow as it further explains that a little bit of explanation is fine as makes us consider our actions. Here, Statement 4 should follow as it again follows the thought process and warns as hesitation becomes a problem when it transmutes into fear or anxiety. Finally, we can close the re-arrangement with Statement 5 in end explaining that if the fear mentioned in Statement 4 is standing in the way of your success, it’s time to evaluate the situation and work towards resolving that fear.
EXAMPLE- 2 (TITA)
1- 20% of the global population is dealing with this symptom and has to take a sleeping pill on a daily basis to get some rest.
2- If you are suffering from insomnia and have to rely on sleeping pills, you are not alone.
3- While there could be multiple causes of insomnia, habitual and psychological factors significantly influence your sleep patterns.
4- Studies demonstrate that the mobile blue light inhibits our sleep and also has a negative impact on our long-term health. It is highly recommended that you avoid your mobile light at all cost one hour before you fall asleep.
5- Fortunately, these are within our control to change. You want to pay extra attention to optimising your home set up especially if you live in busy metropolitan areas.
Correct answer: 21354
After carefully reading all statements, we can say that the paragraph is about the causes of insomnia.
We can start the re-arrangement with Statement 2 introducing the subject of discussion and suggesting that it is a common disease and continuing in Statement 1 saying that around 20% of the global population is dealing with this symptom. Now, Statement 3 will follow next further explaining more causes and how can it influence your sleep patterns. Statement 5 should follow next as it guides as that these are within our control to change and we can optimize our home set up especially if we live in busy metropolitan areas. Finally, Statement 4 can close our re-arrangement as it finally gives more data on the problem and tells us that the blue light from mobiles has a negative impact on our health ad we should avoid the same one hour before we fall asleep.
Example 3: (MCQ)
Take up a sample problem and understand how solving Para-jumbles operates. Go through the following set of sentences labeled A to F:
A. The book was Jonah Lehrer’s How We Decide and the epiphany was that consciousness could reside in the brain.
B. He was a twenty-year-old philosophy major at Hamilton College.
C. In January 2010, while driving from Chicago to Minneapolis, Sam McNerney played an audiobook and had an epiphany.
D. The quest for an empirical understanding of consciousness has long preoccupied neurobiologists.
E. The standard coursework-ancient, modern, and contemporary philosophy-enthralled him.
F. But McNerney was no neurobiologist.
In this case, the right answer is option 4.
The first observations we make for this question are:
Which are these answer options?
- The pair ‘BE’ is present in every answer option. This is what option analysis is: picking out clues from the answer options. By not even reading the statements, we have managed to figure out one set of connected statements.
- The second thing we learn from answer options is that the first sentence of the question is either D or C
- All you need to do is read these two sentences and establish which forms the better opening for the given paragraph.
The next thing that you actually need to do is to establish connections between various statements. Look carefully at the underlined sets of words in this case:
- The book was Jonah Lehrer’s How We Decide and the epiphany was that consciousness could reside in the brain.
- He was a twenty-year-old philosophy major at Hamilton College.
- In January 2010, while driving from Chicago to Minneapolis, Sam McNerney played an audio book and had an epiphany.
- The quest for an empirical understanding of consciousness has long preoccupied neurobiologists.
- The standard coursework-ancient, modern, and contemporary philosophy-enthralled him.
- But McNerney was no neurobiologist.
Example 4: (MCQ)
A. Although there are large regional variations, it is not infrequent to find a large number of people sitting here and there and doing nothing.
B. Once in office, they receive friends and relatives who feel free to call any time without prior appointment.
C. While working, one is struck by the slow and clumsy actions and reactions, indifferent attitudes, procedure rather than outcome orientation, and the lack of consideration for others.
D. Even those who are employed often come late to the office and leave early unless they are forced to be punctual.
E. Work is not intrinsically valued in India.
F. Quite often people visit ailing friends and relatives or go out of their way to help them in their personal matters even during office hours.
Look at the personal pronoun “they” in sentence B: Once in office, they receive friends and relatives who feel free to call any time without prior appointment. This they must be referring to some people. The reference to some people only comes in sentences A, D, and F. Therefore, one of the sentences will come before sentence B. Let’s see the link AB, DB, and FB;
Link AB- Although there are large regional variations, it is not infrequent to find a large number of people sitting here and there and doing nothing. Once in office, they receive friends and relatives who feel free to call any time without prior appointment.
Link DB- Even those who are employed often come late to the office and leave early unless they are forced to be punctual. Once in office, they receive friends and relatives who feel free to call any time without a prior appointment.
Link FB- Quite often people visit ailing friends and relatives or go out of their way to help them in their personal matters even during office hours. Once in office, they receive friends and relatives who feel free to call any time without a prior appointment.
Which of these links makes sense? Only link DB seems coherent. Now, we examine the options with link DB. We see that options 1 and 3 have link DB in them. Also, both the options have link ADBF. Therefore, ADBF is a link. Now we only need to place sentences E and C. We can do that by reading the sentences in the order given in options 1 and 3.
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